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海外社会实践:英国可持续建筑环境暑期社会实践队“游”文化篇(二)

—— 欣赏英国庄园文化
摘要
不同于罗马人的奢华,法国人的浪漫,英国的庄园大多都坐落在远离喧嚣的乡村地带,周围有大片的青草地和精美的园林建筑,令人叹为观止。“在英国人的脑海里,英国的灵魂在乡村”。英国的乡村田园风光是蓝天白云,金色阳光,以及那一幢幢倒映在清澈湖水中的巴洛克与哥特式建筑。

Overseas Social Practice | UK Sustainable Built Environment Summer Social Practice Team - "Travel" Culture (Two)

欣赏英国庄园文化

Enjoy English manor culture

不同于罗马人的奢华,法国人的浪漫,英国的庄园大多都坐落在远离喧嚣的乡村地带,周围有大片的青草地和精美的园林建筑,令人叹为观止。“在英国人的脑海里,英国的灵魂在乡村”。英国的乡村田园风光是蓝天白云,金色阳光,以及那一幢幢倒映在清澈湖水中的巴洛克与哥特式建筑。作为英国文化的典型代表——庄园,就是乡村田园风光里最亮丽的风景所在,是英国的“灵魂”。

Different from the luxury of the Romans’ and the romance of the French’s, most of the British manor houses are located in the countryside away from the hustle and bustle, surrounded by large green meadows and exquisite garden buildings, which are breathtaking. In the British mind, the soul of England is in the countryside. The English countryside is a landscape of blue skies, white clouds, golden sunshine, and baroque and gothic buildings reflected in a clear lake. As a typical representative of British culture, manor is the most beautiful scenery in rural landscape and the "soul" of Britain.

古老而庞大的私家庄园——布莱尼姆宫:

Blenheim palace, an ancient and vast private estate:

布莱尼姆宫,又名丘吉尔庄园的它是历代马尔伯勒公爵府邸,也是温斯顿·丘吉尔出生地。是英国唯一一座非宗教非王室却具有“宫”称号的建筑,也是英国园林的经典之作。这座宫殿由约翰·范布勒建造,它将田园景色、园林和庭院融为一体,显示出卓越超群的风范。

Blenheim palace, also known as Churchill hall, is the duke of Marlborough's historic residence and the birthplace of Winston Churchill. It is the only non-religious and non-royal building in Britain with the   of "palace", and it is also a classic work of British gardens. Built by John van buhler, the palace is a remarkable blend of pastoral landscapes, gardens and courtyards.

进入庄园的大门,我们为眼前气派豪华的建筑群所震撼,首先映入眼帘的便是一座有着古老历史的钟楼与建筑内许多精美的壁画。之后,我们参观了丘吉尔家族的宫殿,依次走过由当时著名设计师设计的厅堂、起居室、豪华招待室、长形图书室、家族小教堂等,宫殿中陈列着其他各国赠予的礼物和著名画师所画的画像,无一不蕴含着丰富的历史文化内涵。

Entering the gate of the manor, we were shocked by the magnificent and luxurious buildings in front of us. The first thing we saw was a bell tower with an ancient history and many exquisite murals in the building. Later, we visited the Churchill family palace, followed by the famous designer design hall, living room, luxurious reception room, long library, family chapel, palace displays other countries to give gifts and the portrait painted by famous artists, all contains rich historical and cultural connotation.

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在布伦海姆宫的庭院里,竖立着很多雕塑,处处都散发着皇家贵族庭院气宇轩昂的派头。无论从壁画的画框雕饰还是到餐桌上的各种奢侈银质及瓷器餐具摆放,都注重细节,默默昭示着往日的辉煌,穿梭于宫殿之中,十几米高的天花板上有色彩鲜亮、画工精细的壁画,描绘着马尔伯勒公爵一世当年战争的场景,巨大的水晶吊灯晶莹璀璨,金碧辉煌的装饰物、深棕色和暗红色的家具让人应接不暇。

In the courtyard of Blenheim palace, there are a lot of statues erected, and everywhere there is a dignified look of the royal and noble courtyard. Whether from mural   carve or on the table of various luxury silver and porcelain tableware, attention to detail, silent scream past glory, shuttle in the palace, more than ten meters high ceiling and a bright color, fine painters murals, painted with the duke of Marlborough I was the scene of war, the great crystal droplight glittering, resplendent and magnificent decorations, dark brown and dark red furniture lets a person up again.

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在这一主体建筑的背面,是设计精美的后花园,各种几何形状的雕塑、设计精巧的喷泉引人入胜。与后花园相邻的一片湖水清澈见底,还有鸭群在其上嬉戏觅食,又为这座庄园增添了一抹生机。沿湖泊前行,最后看到了温斯顿丘吉尔的雕像与玫瑰花园。

On the back of the main building, there is a beautifully designed back garden, with sculptures of various geometric shapes and beautifully designed fountains. A clear lake next door to the back garden, on which the ducks were playing and foraging, added a touch of life to the farm. Walk along the lake and finally see the statue of Winston Churchill and the rose garden.

虽然我们只参观了丘吉尔庄园的冰山一角,却足以感受它的壮观,可见整个丘吉尔庄园的魅力与奢华。

Although we have only visited the tip of the iceberg of Churchill manor, it's enough to feel its spectacularity, and to see the charm and luxury of the whole Churchill manor.

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最美、最奢华的庄园——达西庄园:

The most beautiful and luxurious manor -- Darcy Manor:

达西庄园,一座极富奢华气息的巴洛克式建筑,辉煌而优雅。因为《傲慢与偏见》而被人们所熟知的达西庄园又被称为查茨沃斯庄园(Chatsworth house),它是英国颇负盛名的建筑,有“山中皇宫”之称,是英国文化遗产的一个重要部分。它是世袭德文郡公爵(Dukes of Devonshire)的豪宅,位于英格兰的北部峰区国家公园内,是峰区公园一个最有名的景点之一。

Darcy Manor, a baroque building with a luxurious atmosphere, is splendid and elegant. Known for "pride and prejudice", Darcy Manor is also known as Chatsworth house, which is a prestigious building in Britain, known as "palace in the mountains", and is an important part of British cultural heritage. The estate of the hereditary Dukes of Devonshire, in the north of England's peak national park, is one of the park's most famous attractions.

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庄园始建于1552年,在十五世纪至十九世纪的400多年中,经过许多著名园艺师的精心设计和建造,查茨沃斯庄园成为英国最美的庄园之一。由造景天才兰洛斯布朗所设计,后经16代后裔的整建,内部装潢气派华丽。庄园内收藏各流派名家画作包括17世纪意大利和法国画家所绘的巨幅油画、雕刻等艺术品,包括希腊、罗马时期的雕像,还有大量的中国瓷器,富丽堂皇的宴会大厅曾是维多利亚女王的第一次成人晚宴举办地,金碧辉煌令人眩目。

The manor was built in 1552. During the period of more than 400 years from the 15th century to the 19th century, Chatsworth manor became one of the most beautiful estates in Britain after the careful design and construction of many famous horticulturists. Designed by landscape genius Lanos Brown, after 16 generations of descendants of the renovation, the interior style is magnificent. The manor collects famous paintings in the collection of all stripes, including a giant painting by 17th-century Italian painters and French painters, sculpture and other works of art, including the Greek and Roman statues. There are still a lot of Chinese porcelain. The splendid banquet hall was queen Victoria's first adult dinner site, glittering dazzling.

查茨沃斯庄园融合里六个世纪以来的不同时代风格特征,其主体建筑的是巴洛克风格的宫殿,巴洛克风格艺术有豪华的特色,它既有宗教的特色又有享乐主义的色彩;是一种激情的艺术,打破了理性的宁静与和谐,具有浓郁的浪漫主义色彩。在参观过程中,我们不难发现其建筑的建造中使用了大量的贵重材料,使得整个建筑充满了奢侈的气息,同时其主体建筑与其后花园形成一种微妙的关系,是自然田园气息与辉煌奢靡气息两种气息的碰撞。

Chatsworth house integrates the styles and characteristics of different eras in the past six centuries. Its main building is a palace of baroque style. Baroque art takes on luxurious characteristics, which has both religious characteristics and hedonistic colors. It is a kind of passionate art, which breaks the tranquility and harmony of reason and has strong romantic colors. During the visit, we could easily find that a large amount of precious materials are used in the construction of the building, which makes the whole building full of luxurious atmosphere. Meanwhile, the main building forms a subtle relationship with its back garden, which is the collision of natural pastoral atmosphere and splendid luxury atmosphere.

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查茨沃斯庄园主楼有30多个房间,另外也有多个厅室及走廊,我们所能够参观的厅室和走廊都满满的摆放着卡文迪许家族历代的收藏品,包括其收藏的矿石,油画,素描,雕塑等艺术珍馐。令人震撼的是,在其建筑内部许多看似是“雕塑”的壁画,全部是有画师通过素描绘画而成,其中最为著名的当属在音乐大厅内部的一扇虚掩着的大门内,悬挂着的一把“小提琴”,这把小提琴并非真实存在,它是由当时的画师Jan Van der Vaardt亲手画上去的,至今已有300多年的历史。

There are more than 30 rooms in the main building of Chatsworth house, as well as several halls and corridors. The halls and corridors we can visit are full of the collections of cavendish family, including his collection of minerals, paintings, drawings, sculptures and other art treasures. What's stunning is that murals in many of the building interior appear to be sculpture, all sketched by painters. Among which the most notably is the violin hung in the inside of the music hall inside the door left unlocked door. It is not real, but was hand painted by the painter Jan Van der Vaardt, which has been 300 years of history.

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当我们漫步至后花园中,远处的农场,牧场,湖泊,河流,树林逐渐引入眼帘。阳光下,成群的牛羊点缀着绿绒绒的大片牧场;清澈的德文特河蜿蜒流过青草地,四野宁静安详,似乎能听到一片片树林在秋风里,轻摇枝叶,轻吟低唱。在庄园的后花园中,假山,石雕,喷泉,绿树,草坪,溪流以及戏水的野鸭随处可见。在后花园的假山后,藏着一处由人工修剪而成的篱笆迷宫,迷宫呈圆环形,层层叠叠,蜿蜒曲折。

As we walked to the back garden, the farm, pasture, lake, river and woods in the distance gradually came into sight. In the sun, flocks of cattle and sheep embellished large green velvety pastures. The clear river Devonte wound its way through the green meadows. It was so quiet that you could hear the trees swaying and singing in the autumn wind. In the back garden of the manor, rockery, stone sculpture, fountain, green trees, lawns, streams and splashing ducks can be seen everywhere. Behind the rockery in the back garden, there is a fence maze made of artificial pruning.

走在宅邸光滑的大理石地板上,望着宫殿外茵茵草坪上闲散的羊群和远处墨绿色的森林,光影交错,时间仿佛在这里静止,几百年岁月的沉淀仿佛在这一刻渐渐显露。风从林中穿过,掠过原野,裹挟着青草的气息,迎面吹来,仿佛在向我们诉说着这座豪宅背后绵延百年的故事。

Walking on the smooth marble floor of the mansion, I looked at the idle sheep on the green lawn outside the palace and the dark green forest in the distance. The light and shadow were interlocked. The wind from the forest through, across the plain, with the breath of grass, blowing in the face, as if to tell us the story of the mansion back for hundreds of years.

亲临英国,才知那如同爱丽丝梦境般的庄园。千百年来留下的庄严气息,熏陶着我们。无论是经典的巴洛克与哥特式建筑,还是宁静而优雅的乡村气息,都令人久久不能忘怀。我们踩着柔软的青草地,“游”在庄园的田地中,在惬意的漫步中,领会这厚重的文化。

Come to Britain personally, just know that the manor like Alice's wonderland. The solemn atmosphere left by thousand of years edifies us. Whether the classic baroque and gothic architecture, or quiet and elegant rural atmosphere, are unforgettable. We walked on the soft green grass and "swam" in the fields of the estate. In the pleasant walk, we understood the thick culture.

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王会丽 责任编辑 环境与生态学院